Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is commonly called as Diabetes. India has one of the largest Diabetic patients in the world. As per the medical reports, India will become Diabetes capital in the coming years. Hence awareness about diabetes disease is very necessary among Indian people for the prevention of diabetes. Glucose is vital for health because it is an important source of energy for the cells that build body’s muscles and tissues. Glucose is also brain’s main source of fuel. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that prevents body from properly using the energy which is generated from the food. Diabetes is chronic and lifelong disease. It can be easily preventable and controllable.Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni is a well experienced, skillful Diabetologist and Endocrinologist in Andheri, Mumbai. He is an expert in the treatment of endocrine diseases. Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni is also one of the most proficient Diabetes specialist doctor in Andheri, Mumbai.

Diabetes occurs in one of the situations:

  • The Pancreas is a gland organ located in the abdomen. Its main function is to produce Insulin. It is a naturally occurring hormone which is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps the body to use (glucose) sugar for energy. Diabetes Mellitus occurs when the Pancreas produces very low or no Insulin at all.
  • Insulin resistance is condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the Insulin hormone.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

There are three major types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is known as Juvenile diabetes or Insulin dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs due to the damage of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells). It is typically appears in adolescence. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas makes little or no insulin, so that sugar cannot get into the body’s cells for use as energy. People with type 1 diabetes should use insulin injections to control their blood glucose. If type 1diabetes is not controlled, then over the time type 1 diabetes complications start affecting major organs in body including heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys.

Type 2 Diabetes

This is the most common type of diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is also called as adult onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is generally

occur in adults after the age of 40 years but more teenagers are now developing type 2 diabetes due to the overweight. In type 2 diabetes, Pancreas either produces insufficient insulin or the insulin does not work properly. 9 out of 10 people are suffering from type 2 diabetes. It is controlled with a combination of diet, weight management and exercise. Type 2 diabetes treatments include oral glucose-lowering medications (taken by mouth) or insulin injections (shots).

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy due to the high blood sugar level. As pregnancy progresses, the developing baby has a greater need for glucose. Hormone changes during pregnancy also affect the action of insulin which brings about high blood glucose levels.

Pregnant women are always having a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes due to major factors including:

  • Women who are over 35 years old.
  • Women who are overweight.
  • Women Having a family history of diabetes.
  • Women Having a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Causes of Diabetes

The risk factors which can increase the chances of getting diabetes include:

  • Family history of diabetes
  • Obesity or overweight
  • Stressful lifestyle
  • Use of certain medications, steroids and drugs
  • Injury to the pancreas (such as infection, tumor, surgery or accident)
  • Autoimmune disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Higher cholesterol level
  • Age
  • Smoking
  • History of gestational diabetes

Symptoms of Diabetes

The symptoms of diabetes include:

  • Increased thirst
  • Increased hunger (especially after eating)
  • Dry mouth
  • Frequent urination
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Weak, tired feeling
  • Blurred vision
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Slow-healing sores or cuts
  • Dry and itchy skin
  • Frequent urinary tract infections

Diagnosis and Prevention of Diabetes

Diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests such as fasting glucose test, random glucose test and A1c test. These tests are performed at laboratory.

Although diabetes risk factors like family history cannot be changed but there are other risk factors which can be easily controlled. Diabetes is easily preventable or controllable by adapting a healthy life style including

  • Eating healthy diet
  • Performing Physical activities
  • Lowering stress
  • Avoiding alcohol
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Quitting smoking

Treatment of Diabetes

The main goal of treatment is to control proper blood sugar level. Various treatment options include

  • Dietary management and physical activities 

Modifying eating habits and increasing physical activity are typically the first steps in controlling proper blood sugar levels.

  • Insulin therapy

People with type 1 diabetes require multiple insulin injections each day to maintain safe insulin levels. Insulin is also often required to treat type 2 diabetes.

  • Medications 

Sometimes blood sugar levels remain high in people with type 2 diabetes even after adapting healthy lifestyle. In such situation, doctor prescribes medicines which improve the effectiveness of the body’s natural insulin, reduce blood sugar production, increase insulin production and prevent blood sugar absorption.

Diabetic patient should stop worrying about diabetes instead they should keep a healthy lifestyle. A regular blood check up is very important to maintain proper blood sugar level and cholesterol level.

Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni is a well known Diabetologist and Endocrinologist in Andheri, Mumbai. He is a specialist in the Hormonal imbalance diseases. Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni’s Glands Clinic in Andheri, Mumbai is a well equipped with advanced medical techniques to provide all types of treatments to diabetes and other Hormonal diseases. Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni has a comprehensive knowledge of Diabetes management. He has a good experienced about procedures involved in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.